Title of submission
Field trip is an educational procedure by which the learners obtain first hand information by observing places , objects, phenomena, and process in their natural setting. A field trip, which may also be termed as an instructional trip, school excursion, or school journey, is defined by Krepel and Duvall (1981) to be a school or class trip with an educational intent, in which students interact with the setting, displays, and exhibits to gain an experiential connection to the ideas, concepts, and subject matter. Tal and Morag (2009) described field trips as student experiences outside of the classroom at interactive locations designed for educational purposes.
Field Trip may be planned for five purposes:
1) To provide firsthand experience,
2) To stimulate interest and motivation in science,
3) To add relevance to learning and interrelationships,
4) To strengthen observation and perception skills,
5) To promote personal (social) development.
Field trips take students to locations that are unique and cannot be duplicated in the classroom. Each student observes natural settings and creates personally relevant meaning to the experience.
Field trips require significant planning and coordination for teachers and administrators, but students often see a field trip as a free day out of the classroom. However, students will likely have an educational experience that they never could have had in the classroom.
A well – designed Field trip can bring it all together : combine two or more subject while offering a variety of learning styles and intelligences, integrate the arts, encourage low – income and English language leaner students to make connections between community resources and opportunities and their family and culture. Field trip is an effective method for health promotion and education where we learn through direct experience in real situation.
ADVANTAGES OF FIELD TRIP IN SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION
In the present scenario with the advance use of technology, one can get all the information by sitting at one place but educational tours make the students to enrich, explore and gain ample knowledge. Moreover, when students go on an educational trip, it gives them a chance to socialize with each other and get to know their classmates well. Field trips are undoubtedly one of the best ways to promote team spirit over several fun filled knowledgeable activities. It is very important to learn things practically and what better way than taking them to students. Field trips are best known to keep aside the same routine that students follow in school and introduce to them a new way of learning and gaining information.
Social Science teachers have long utilized field trips as a teaching pedagogy of “lived learning” whereby “students actively learn through the field experience and the interaction generated among the students as well as between teachers and students
Some of importance of field trip education in Social Science are :
1.A field is a journey by a group of people to a place away from their normal environment.
3.New experience in social science students
6.Extention for classroom study
7.Real World Learning
A field trip is one of the best tools that we can use to provide every student with real-world experiences. Whether that's a trip to the local grocery store, waterfront park, a library, a museum, a theater, a community garden or a restaurant, each experience that a student participates in contributes to their understanding of the world.
Students are able to access tools and environments that are not available at school. Our communities are rich learning laboratories. Field trips make it possible to take students to see an underwater ecosystem at an aquarium, participate in citizen science in a river, use high powered microscopes, see and touch historical artifacts in person and present on a public stage among hundreds of other things. Each experience solidifies learning and supports important academic concepts.
Students who go on field trips become more empathetic and tolerant. A study conducted by the University of Arkansas found that students that participate in a field trip to an art museum show increased empathy, tolerance and critical thinking skills. Studying art gives students a chance to think about a topic or theme from a different perspective.
Field based learning increases test scores. Additionally, field trips are important because students are able to engage with content in a variety of ways.
Field trips have long been used as a context for teaching and learning in the social studies and especially in history education . Field trips can provide students the opportunity to construct knowledge actively through interacting with historic places, experts, and artifacts.
The purpose of the trip is usually observation for education, non-experimental research or to provide students with experiences outside their everyday activities, such as going camping with teachers and their classmates. The aim of this research is to observe the subject in its natural state and possibly collect samples. It is seen that more-advantaged children may have already experienced cultural institutions outside of school, and field trips provide a common ground with more-advantaged and less-advantaged children to have some of the same cultural experiences in the arts.
Field trips provide alternative educational opportunities for studentswith more-advantaged and less-advantaged children to have some of the same cultural experiences in the arts.
Field trips provide alternative educational opportunities for students and can benefit the community if they include some type of community service. Field trips also provide students the opportunity to take a break from their normal routine and experience more hands on learning.
A well-organized field trip is a foremost example of knowledge transfer. The new layers of thought acquired by students through observation, interaction, and the narrative provided by guides and lecturers, can be applied to day-to-day scenarios, and this includes reaction papers and quizzes. Therefore, it helps them improve the retention of knowledge.
11.Reinforces Cultural Growth and Personal Development
Social related Museums are one of the primary destinations of field trips and for good reason for students better understanding in social values and cultural growth.
12.Increases Student Engagement
Any new concept might not register in the minds of social science students if they do not find it engaging, relatable, or applicable to their lifestyles. With this, field trips break the barrier of apathy by allowing students to freely interact with subjects like significant objects, places, personalities, and processes. The excursions also sharpen students’ observation and perception skills as they engage
13.Strengthening Perception and Observation
Social science educated students are eager to learn in environments that foster new ideas and afford experiences that cannot be replicated in classrooms.
Field trips hold more than enough educational value to be retained in school curricula. Studies and surveys have proven that a well-planned trip results in positive academic and developmental outcomes that students can leverage inside and outside of the classroom. As a means of hands-on learning, the trips help students improve their observational skills, develop an affinity for art and culture, and be more engaged in their studies.
In Social Science Education students take trips that allow them to immerse in art, history, and community service, they learn to empathize more with other sectors of society, even those from even those from different eras. The experience can be considered transformative as a study has proven its long-term effects .
Anchuthengu ("Five Coconut Palms"), formerly known as Anjengo or Anjenga,is a coastal panchayath and town in the Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala. It is situated 9km south-west of Varkala Town along Trivandrum - Varkala - Kollam coastal highway.
The town contains old Portuguese-style churches, a lighthouse, a 100-year-old convent and school, tombs of Dutch and British sailors and soldiers, and the remains of the Anchuthengu Fort. Kaikara village, the birthplace of the famous Malayalam poet Kumaran Asan, is located nearby. Temples in the area are Sree Bala Subrahmanya Swami Kshethram and Parambil Sree Bhadrakali Yogeeshwara Kshethram.
Anchuthengu is about 36 kilometers (22 mi) north of Thiruvananthapuram. The nearest airport is Thiruvanathapuram Airport Station. Kadakkavur Railway Station is 2 kilometers (1.2 mi) away.
Anjengo is located in an oxbow at the mouth of Parvathy Puthanaar canal. Originally, it was an old Portuguese settlement.
Anchuthengu, formerly known as Anjengo, is a place situated about 12 km from Varkala en route to Kadakkavur. It is another coastal town in Thiruvananthapuram District and is known as an old colonial settlement. The island is very small in area, sandwitched between the sea and backwaters, but it has high relevance in the history of India, with various colonial powers – The Portuguese, Dutch and the English – tried to occupy the place. The major landmark at Anchuthengu is Anjengo Fort, which is situated between the sea and backwaters. Travellers can also see some ancient tombstones and a garden on the fort premises.
Name of the place
Anchuthengu, literally means five coconut trees, and as the name indicates the whole land is cultivated with coconut trees. Some historians are of the view that the name was derived from Anjingal, which was the original Tamil name of the place. The British mispronounced it as Anjengo and the later generations of the local residents started to refer to this place as Anchuthengu.
HistoryAnchuthengu has great relevance in the history. It was the first trade settlement of the East India Company. The Queen of Attingal gave permission to the British under the East India Company to make a factory in Anchuthengu in 1684. They also got a permission to build a fort in 1690 and the Anjengo Fort was builtin 1695. The settlement in Anchuthengu helped the Company promote its trade with various countries, as the place supported water way communication to the North. They also opened a depot to keep the military equipment at Anchuthengu. In short, this small island soon became one of the major trading platforms of the British in India, after Mumbai.There was local unrest against the British in 1697 and the natives attacked the British factory at Anchuthengu, but it was a minor unrest and could create no major ripples in the political equation of the country.But the Attingal rebellion of 1721 has some historical significance. The natives were very unpleasant due to the arrogant approach of the British towards them and they were further distanced from them due to some new unjust measures that the British tried to implement in the land. But at the same time the British pleased the Queen with precious gifts. In 1721, the local feudal lords demanded the British to give presents to the Queen of Attingal only through them. The British refused to obey this and with about 140 English traders, they proceeded to Attingal with the gifts for the Queen. The local people attacked the group and killed all the English traders. They also sieged the Anjengo Fort. The attack was defended by Gunner Inns and later the rebellion was defeated when more British force from Thalassery reached Anchuthengu. This incident is known as the first collective move against the British rule in Kerala. The fort played an important role during the invasion of Mysore king, Hyder Ali too. During the Anglo Mysore wars in 18th century, the fort became the store house of ammunition for the British. In 1694, the Queen of Attingal granted the British East India Company(EIC) the right to establish a factory and a fort at Anjengo, which became the Company's first trade settlement in Kerala. The Anjengo Fort was erected in 1694-8.Because of its location, it was an occasional port of call for East Indiamen. There they might leave or get news warning shipping of war in India or Europe.In 1744 Anjengo was the birthplace of Eliza Draper who would become a muse and correspondent of Laurence Sterne. The fort played an important role in the Anglo-Mysore Wars of the 18th century but, by the 19th century, the fort was considered an unnecessary expense. The EIC abandoned it, and the factory, in 1813.In the 19th century, the town remained known for its excellent ropes(manufactured from the local palms) and also exported pepper, homespun cotton cloth, and drugs.Anchuthengu was a part of Malabar District during British Raj.The fort was now besieged with a residual garrison of 35, mostly pensioners and boys, of whom only 20 were able to use a firearm. About 150 local people living around the fort whose houses had been burnt by the besiegers also took refuge inside. The defense was organised by the gunnery officer, Samuel Ince. On 25 April two EIC ships arrived from Kochi with supplies and 7 reinforcements. A message was also received from the Rajah of Quilon (now Kollam) offering sanctuary to the displaced locals and so 150 women and children were sent into his care. On 1 May a further 52 men arrived from Tellicherry (now Thalassery) and Calicut (now Kozhikode) as reinforcements.The siege continued without incident until 24 June when there was a vigorous attack on three sides possibly inspired by rumours that the Rajah of Travancore was sending a relieving force. The attack was repelled without any fatalities in the garrison using artillery and grenades and thereafter no serious assault took place. In due course further reinforcements were received from Calicut and the Rani and her loyal subjects sent supplies. Although news of the siege had reached Bombay (now Mumbai) by the beginning of July the monsoon meant that no attempt to relieve the fort until October, when on 17th 300 men arrived from Carwar (now Karwar) and Surat and the fort was relieved.
The fort played an important role in the Anglo-Mysore Wars. During the Anglo-Mysore wars the EIC stored ammunition at the fort.In 1792 the EIC reduced Anjengo's formal status to that of a Residency. In 1810 the EIC abolished the Commercial Residency at Anjengo and handed over the responsibility for the fort to the Political Agent at Travancore. In 1813 the factory was closed.In 1748 the Bombay Dockyard built the snow Luconia for the Anjengo Pilot Service. In 1802 Anjengo, a ship of 260 tons (bm) was built at Anjengo, the first vessel of that large a size. The owner, John Tady Dyne, was one of the last EIC residents at Anjengo.
Anjengo Revolt; April–October 1721) refers to the massacre of 140 East India Company soldiers by native Indians and the following siege of Fort Anjengo. The Attingal Outbreak is often regarded as the first organized revolt against British authority in Malabar, Cochin and Travancore. The main reasons behind the resentment was large scale corruption and the manipulation of black pepper prices by the Company. The chief factor at the Anjengo factor, Gyfford refused to hand over the customary gifts meant for the Rani of Attingal to the agents of the local feudal lords (Pillamar) and tried to hand them directly to the Rani at the head of a force of 140 soldiers on 15 April 1721. This show of force had the opposite effect and the local people rebelled, attacked and destroyed the entire force and then laid siege to the fort. Gunnar Ince led the defence of the fort for six months till the arrival of the Company's troops from the English controlled Tellicherry.
Following the turn of events, the Company and the Rani of Attingal entered into an agreement under which;
the Company was compensated for all losses sustained during the attack on Anjengo
was also given the sole monopoly of trade in pepper
the right to erect factories in places of its choice
The Attingal revolt of 1721 was the first organised uprising against the English East India Company in Kerala. It was a period of intense internal conflicts in south Kerala and mid-Kerala when Marthanda Varma was enthroned in 1729 in Travancore (Venad).
Architecture of the fortCompared to the other forts in Kerala, Anjengo fort lacks some typical look and characteristics of a fort. It is more like an enclosed bastion with high laterite walls. The fort also has some lookout points and there entrances on east and west.
The fort was the East India Company's first permanent post on the Malabar Coast. In November 1693, John Brabourne was sent by the British East India Company(EIC) to Attingal, where he obtained from Rani Ashure a grant of a site for a fort on the sandy spit of Anchuthengu(then known as Anjengo), together with the monopoly of the pepper trade of Attingal. The EIC commenced construction in January 1696.In June 1696 British pirates in the ketch Josiah under Robert Culliford, destroyed the Bengal Pilot Service's sloop Gingali (or Gingalle) at Anjengo.While construction was ongoing the Dutch lobbied the Rani against the fort's construction, as it would impact adversely on their own trade on the Malabar coast. She ordered
Brabourne to stop building but he ignored her orders. The Rani then tried to starve out the British by cutting off supplies; but as they could be supplied from the sea, the land blockade proved ineffectual. She then sent an armed force against Brabourne but he defeated it and a peace was arranged. The fort was completed in 1699, and a flourishing trade in pepper and cotton cloth speedily grew up. The fort served as the first signaling station for ships arriving from Britain.The fort is 256 ft (78.0 m) square, with four bastions, each of which mounted eight 18-pounder guns. The walls between the bastions had seven or eight guns. In addition, there was a battery of some twenty 18&24-pounder guns facing the sea. The fort had a garrison of 400 Europeans and 70-80 topasses.Originally Anjengo was second in importance to the EIC only to Bombay Castle .
Of more importance than the attack in 1697 was the incident at Attingal and subsequent siege in April 1721.
Anchuthengu Fort , is of great historical importance and it is well maintained .The whole five coconut area is clean,calm and gorgeous .The garden and lighthouse pristine and one could easily imagine it back in the days of colonial rule .Anchuthengu fort is a calm place to choose on evenings .The place is very close to my heart as the very first of trips with my friends was to Anchuthengu Fort.The place is calm and soothing in the evenings with the view of sea and a river from the top of a light house. The fort is simple without much expressive architectural detailing. The ambience and view in all the place got to offer. Thiruvananthapuram city, Anchuthengu today, is a normal fishing village - one of the many we will find on the coast of Kerala. But Anchuthengu , as once the British called it, used to be a famous port of call good look at the rustic charm of the village . The wind whistled put us, the skies were laden and the sun played hide and seek the lighthouse across the sea. The river ,Parvathiputhenar,snaking its way the light house the coconut trees waving their heads and the village life in all its rustic charm. People waiting on one side of river for the boat to take them across the waters .Around the legde, on the other side, the beach dotted with fishing boats and ocean spread out for as the far as the eyes could see . The fort is a simple structure,with four bastions and paved pathways inside .These are steps on all the four sides leading on nothing more inside the fort to keep you engaged. However , it has a long and gory history .In 1680’s the English East India Company got permission to set up a factory at Anchuthengu from the Rani of Attingal
The fort served as the first signalizing station for ships coming in from England Battles were fought from this fort during the Anglo-Mysore wars and during the Attingal Rebellion , when the local people rose in revolt against the British . Now a protected monument by the Archeological Survey of India,the fort is open to public on most of the days .However , the light house is open only between 3pm and 5pm. The best way to see Anchuthengu is to take in a 360 degree view from the top of the light house.Anchuthengu is for those who love to explore the traces of bygone area.